Introduction

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Chapter 30:  Conjunctions and Particles >>


Chapter 29

Adverbs

29.1        Adverbs formed from adjectives

    Most adverbs are formed by removing the final -ы or -і from the adjective and adding -а to the ending.  If the stress in the adjective falls on the last or next to the last syllable, it shifts to the first syllable for the adverb.

блізкі
close
блізка
closely
важны
important
важна
importantly
вясёлы
happy
весела
happily
дакладны
precise
дакладна
precisely
ранні
early
ранна
early
ціхі
quiet
ціха
quietly


29.2        Compound adverbs

    These adverbs are formed by adding 'па-' to the front of the adjective.  When certain possesive adjectives are formed from animate nouns, they can be made into adverbs indicating similarity of behavior to the animate noun.

дзіцячы
child's
па-дзіцячы
childishly
воўчы
wolf's
па-воўчы
like a wolf


    Ordinal numbers form adverbs by declining the adjective for the nominative neuter case and adding the prefix.

першы
first
па-першае
firstly
другі
second
па-другое
secondly
трэці
third
па-трэцяе
thirdly


    Some adjectives, especially ones denoting language or nationality, form an adverb by appending the prefix and changing the final -і to an -у.

беларускі
Belarusian
па-беларуску
in Belarusian
брацкі
brother's
па-брацку
like a brother
англійскі
English
па-англійску
in English


29.3        The adverbs болей, меней, больш and менш

    The adverbs болей and больш mean more, and меней and меньш mean less.  See Section 6.4 for more on the usage of these adverbs.

Сястры ён болей не ўбачыць.
He will not see his sister anymore.
Куды болей за іх баяўся Ізяслаў.
Izyaslau feared his own people much more than them.
У жыцці, аднак, усё сталася болей складана і меней шчасліва.
In life, however, everything became more complicated and less happy.


Кожны з якіх збіў больш за 100 нашых самалётаў.
Each of which destroyed more than 100 of our planes.
Я памкнуўся бліжэй, і Франі больш не пабачыў.
I strove closer, and I did not see Franya any more.
Яна, тым не менш, таіла ў сабе неразгаданую загадку.
She nevertheless concealed within herself an unsolved riddle.
Ён пачаў менш успамінаць былое.
He started to remember the past less.


29.4        Comparative and superlative adverbs

    There are two ways to form the comparative and two ways to form the superlative form of an adverb.  The short comparative form is the more common of the two.  It is identical to the short comparative adjective.  Section 6.1 covers its formation thoroughly.  Not all adverbs have a short comparative form, but all adverbs can also form a comparative by preceding the adverb with болей or больш.

На вайне куды болей партэбна такая вось дужасць.
In war, such strength is needed much more.
Рабілася ўсё болей сцюдзёна на гэтым ветраным узлеску.
It became much colder in this windy forest edge.


Размова пра паходы скочана сказаў больш лагодна.
"All talk of the march is finished," he said good-naturedly.
Гэта ідэя будзе больш выгадна.
This idea will be more profitable.

    There are two ways of forming the superlative adverb.  The first is to precede the adverb with either найбольш, most.  The second way is to follow the adverb by the phrase за ўсё or за ўсіх.

Нас маглі накіраваць куды заўгодна, але найбольш верагодна у стралковы батальён.
They could place us wherever is convenient, but most likely, it will be into a rifle battalion.
Але найбольш зацята я не хацеў стаць кампазітарам.
But most stubbornly, I did not want to become a composer.


Але болей за ўсё яму дакучала адчуванне голаду.
But mostly, he felt cravings of hunger.
Болей за ўсё верагодна, што ён адчуў непажаданую пэрспэктыву адзіноты.
It was most likely that he felt the unwanted perspective of loneliness.


29.5        Miscellaneous adverbs

    There are many important adverbs that are not derived from adjectives.  A very few of them are listed here.

дзе
where
куды
to where
тут
here
сюды
to here
там
there
туды
to there
нідзе
nowhere
нікуды
not to anywhere
усюды
everywhere




адкуль
from where
дома
at home
адсюль
from here
дадому
to home
адтуль
from there


ніадкуль
not from anywhere
калі
when


цяпер
now
сёння
today
зараз
immediately
заўтра
tomorrow
тады
then
учора
yesterday
ніколі
never


заўсёды
always
вельмі
very


зноў
again
як
how
ледзь
barely
так
so/that way
надта
significantly
неяк
some way
крыху
a little
ніяк
no way
шмат
a lot


многа
much/many


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Copyright (c)  2004  Christian Cardell Marchant.
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